IsiZulu ngonyaka wezi-2016

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Siyakwemukela kwibhlogi yesine kumabhlogi akwaBangula, kanti laphaIsiZulu ngonyaka wezi-2016 yilapho senaba khona ngezilimi zethu ezisemthethweni kanye nendlela yokuthuthuka kwazo.

Ibhlogi ngayinye izokhishwa isihunyushelwe olimini oluthile kanti ngokwenza lokhu siqonde ukukhuthaza wonke umuntu ukuthi akhulume futhi asebenzise ulimi lwaseNingizimu Afrika.

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IsiZulu wulimi olwejwayeleke ukuzedlula zonke ezinye izilimi ezikhona eNingizimu Afrika, bheka nje ngoba isiZulu sikhulunywa ngabantu abacishe babalelwe kumaphesenti angama-23 kubantu bonke abakhona kuleli lizwe, noma asithi nje cishe ukuba wulimi olukhulunywa ngabantu abayizigidi eziyi-11.6. Lolu wulimi lwesizwe samaZulu nokuyisizwe esikhulu kunazo zonke izizwe ezikhona eNingizimu Afrika. Kanti kwawona amaZulu lawo aqanjwa kanjalo nje ngemuva kweqhawe elingumbumbi wawo elahlanganisa izizwe ngeminyakakhulu ye-16. Le nkosi eliqhawe, uShaka kaSenzangakhona wasibumba isizwe samaZulu savelela ekuqaleni kweminyakakhulu ye-19. Isilo esibusayo njengamanje uNgangezwelakhe iSilo uGoodwill Zwelithini.

IsiZulu siwulimi olusebenza ngephimbo kanti singolunye lwezilimi ezine ezaziwa ngokuthi isiNguni kanti futhi isiZulu sihlobene kakhulu nolimi lwesiXhosa. IsiZulu siwulimi olugqamise okwekati elimnyama ehlungwini kwizilimi ezisemthethweni eNingizimu Afrika, ngoba sikhulunywa ukusuka ezansi nezwe eKapa, kuye kuyoshaya eZimbabwe. Ukubhalwa phansi kolimi lwesiZulu kwaqalwa abefundisi endaweni ngaleso sikhathi eyayibizwa ngokuthi yiseNatali ngeminyakakhulu ye-19, kanti ukuhunyushwa okokuqala kweBhayibheli lesiZulu kwenzeka ngonyaka we-1883.

IsiZulu siwulimi olukhulunywa kakhulu endaweni ethile eyodwa ngoba kubona bonke laba bantu abasikhulumayo cishe inani elilinganiselwa ku-77.8 wamaphesenti labantu elitholakala KwaZulu-Natali kuphela. Bangaphezu kwamaphesenti ayi-18 abantu abakhuluma isiZulu abatholakala esifundazweni saseGauteng, nokuyisifundazwe sesibili kwezinkulu ngokuba nabantu abakhuluma ulimi lwesiZulu. Kanti kulaba bantu bonkana, esifundazweni saseGauteng, abantu abakhuluma ulimi lwesiZulu benza amaphesenti ayi-19.5 kubantu bonke abakhona esifundazweni. Esifundazweni saseMpumalanga isiZulu sikhulunywana yidlanzana labantu, ngoba balinganiselwa kumaphesenti ayi-7.6 kwisifundazwe sonkana. Ukuba khona kolimi kulezi ezinye izifundazwe eziyisithupha akusiyona into enakiwe neqhakanjiswa kangako.

Ukuthuthukiswa nokucathuliswa kwemibhalo yesiZulu

Ulimi lwesiZulu lugabe nangemisebenzi yalo yobuciko bomlomo enothile, kanti eminye yale misebenzi ayibhaliwe phansi bese kuthi eminye ibhalwe phansi. Imibhalo yobuciko yendabuko yolimi lwesiZulu ifaka phakathi izinkondlo, ezifana nalokho okubizwa ngokuthi “izibongo”. Imibhalo yobuciko yolimi lwesiZulu ingehlukaniswa amaqembu amabili; kufike kube yilelo qembu elibhekene neminxa yempilo yesintu kumaZulu kanye nalowo munxa obhekene kakhulu nomunxa wenkolo yobuKrestu.

Eminyakenikhulu yama-20, kwabhalwa imibhalo eminingi ngesiZuu laqala nesiko lesiZulu lafundwa phansi. Eminye yemibhalo eqaphelekayo eyavela ngaso lesi sikhathi singabala umbhalo kaMagema kaMagwaza Fuze owavela ngonyaka we-1922 owawunesihloko esithi “Abantu Abamnyama Lapha Bavela Ngakhona” (owahunyushwa ngesiNgisi ngokuthi “Where the Black People Came From”), kanye nomsebenzi kaPetros Lamula wangonyaka we-1936 owawunesihloko esithi “Isabelo sikaZulu” (kanti wahunyushwa ngolimi lwesiNgisi ngokuthi nje “Zulu Heritage”).

Imibhalo yesimanje yolimi lwesiZulu

Imibhalo yobuciko yamanje yolimi lwesiZulu igxile ekugubheni kanye nasekugcineni ulimi lwesiZulu kanye namasiko akhona, kodwa okuyikhona okubhekwe kakhulu ukugcina umongo nokuceba kwezindaba zesiZulu ezazingabhalwa phansi. Kanti phakathi kwezinye izindaba zesiZulu ezinothile singabala imisebenzi eyabhalwa wu-F.L.A Ntuli ngonyaka we-1939 onesihloko esithi “Izinganekwane Nezindaba Ezindala” (engahunyushwa ngolimi lwesiNgisi ngokuthi: “Oral Narratives and Ancient Traditions”) kanye nomsebenzi kaNyembezi wangonyaka we-1958 okwakuyiqoqo lezinkondlo zobuqhawe bukaZulu elalinesihloko esithi “Izibongo zamakhosi” (“Izinkondlo zobuqhawe lapho inyosi isuke ihasha khona inkosi ethile”).

Imibhalo yobuciko yesimanje ayigxilile nje kuphela kwizingqikithi ezithinta isiZulu kuphela. Imibhalo yobuciko yolimi lwesiZulu esikhathini samanje isifaka phakathi izinto ezifana nemibhalo ewubuciko bomlomo, izinkondlo kanye nedrama. Sekukhona ngisho namaphephandaba amaningi olimi lwesiZulu, kukhona namaphephabhuku, izinhlelo zemisakazo kanye neziteshi zikamabonakude ezisakaza ngolimi lwesiZulu.

Izici zolimi lwesiZulu

Ulimi lwesiZulu lunamagama amaningi oluwethekele ezilimini ezifana nesiBhunu kanye nesiNgisi. Njengolimi lwesiXhosa, ulimi lwesiZulu lwehlukile kwezinye izilimi ngoba lusebenzisa kakhulu ongwaqa kanti izazi eziningi zezilimi zikholelwa ukuthi labo ngwaqa abaningi kangaka bebolekwa ezilimini zabaThwa. Enye into eqaphelekayo ngolimi lwesiZulu ukuthi amagama amaningi kulo agcina ngonkamisa.

  • IsiZulu siwulimi lwebele kubantu ababalelwa ku: 22.7% womphakathi wonkana wakuleli (sikhulunywa ngabantu abayizi-11 587 374)
  • Ukuzaleka kwalolu limi kumi kanje: Niger-Congo > Atlantic-Congo > Volta- Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern > Narrow Bantu > Central > S group > Nguni > isiZulu
  • Amanye amagama omlando olubuye lwaziwe ngalo: Zulu, Zunda
  • Izilimi zezigodi: isiLala, isiQwabe

Bakhona nakwezinye izindawo abantu abakhuluma ulimi lwesiZulu kanti batholakala ezindaweni ezifana noSwazini, eMzambikhi, eMalawi, eBotswana kanye naseLesotho.

Imithombo: Census 2011 kanye ne-Ethnologue

Siyakwemukela kwibhlogi yesine kumabhlogi akwaBangula, kanti lapha yilapho senaba khona ngezilimi zethu ezisemthethweni kanye nendlela yokuthuthuka kwazo.

Ibhlogi ngayinye izokhishwa isihunyushelwe olimini oluthile kanti ngokwenza lokhu siqonde ukukhuthaza wonke umuntu ukuthi akhulume futhi asebenzise ulimi lwaseNingizimu Afrika.

IsiZulu wulimi olwejwayeleke ukuzedlula zonke ezinye izilimi ezikhona eNingizimu Afrika, bheka nje ngoba isiZulu sikhulunywa ngabantu abacishe babalelwe kumaphesenti angama-23 kubantu bonke abakhona kuleli lizwe, noma asithi nje cishe ukuba wulimi olukhulunywa ngabantu abayizigidi eziyi-11.6. Lolu wulimi lwesizwe samaZulu nokuyisizwe esikhulu kunazo zonke izizwe ezikhona eNingizimu Afrika. Kanti kwawona amaZulu lawo aqanjwa kanjalo nje ngemuva kweqhawe elingumbumbi wawo elahlanganisa izizwe ngeminyakakhulu ye-16. Le nkosi eliqhawe, uShaka kaSenzangakhona wasibumba isizwe samaZulu savelela ekuqaleni kweminyakakhulu ye-19. Isilo esibusayo njengamanje uNgangezwelakhe iSilo uGoodwill Zwelithini.

IsiZulu siwulimi olusebenza ngephimbo kanti singolunye lwezilimi ezine ezaziwa ngokuthi isiNguni kanti futhi isiZulu sihlobene kakhulu nolimi lwesiXhosa. IsiZulu siwulimi olugqamise okwekati elimnyama ehlungwini kwizilimi ezisemthethweni eNingizimu Afrika, ngoba sikhulunywa ukusuka ezansi nezwe eKapa, kuye kuyoshaya eZimbabwe. Ukubhalwa phansi kolimi lwesiZulu kwaqalwa abefundisi endaweni ngaleso sikhathi eyayibizwa ngokuthi yiseNatali ngeminyakakhulu ye-19, kanti ukuhunyushwa okokuqala kweBhayibheli lesiZulu kwenzeka ngonyaka we-1883.

IsiZulu siwulimi olukhulunywa kakhulu endaweni ethile eyodwa ngoba kubona bonke laba bantu abasikhulumayo cishe inani elilinganiselwa ku-77.8 wamaphesenti labantu elitholakala KwaZulu-Natali kuphela. Bangaphezu kwamaphesenti ayi-18 abantu abakhuluma isiZulu abatholakala esifundazweni saseGauteng, nokuyisifundazwe sesibili kwezinkulu ngokuba nabantu abakhuluma ulimi lwesiZulu. Kanti kulaba bantu bonkana, esifundazweni saseGauteng, abantu abakhuluma ulimi lwesiZulu benza amaphesenti ayi-19.5 kubantu bonke abakhona esifundazweni. Esifundazweni saseMpumalanga isiZulu sikhulunywana yidlanzana labantu, ngoba balinganiselwa kumaphesenti ayi-7.6 kwisifundazwe sonkana. Ukuba khona kolimi kulezi ezinye izifundazwe eziyisithupha akusiyona into enakiwe neqhakanjiswa kangako.

Ukuthuthukiswa nokucathuliswa kwemibhalo yesiZulu

Ulimi lwesiZulu lugabe nangemisebenzi yalo yobuciko bomlomo enothile, kanti eminye yale misebenzi ayibhaliwe phansi bese kuthi eminye ibhalwe phansi. Imibhalo yobuciko yendabuko yolimi lwesiZulu ifaka phakathi izinkondlo, ezifana nalokho okubizwa ngokuthi “izibongo”. Imibhalo yobuciko yolimi lwesiZulu ingehlukaniswa amaqembu amabili; kufike kube yilelo qembu elibhekene neminxa yempilo yesintu kumaZulu kanye nalowo munxa obhekene kakhulu nomunxa wenkolo yobuKrestu.

Eminyakenikhulu yama-20, kwabhalwa imibhalo eminingi ngesiZuu laqala nesiko lesiZulu lafundwa phansi. Eminye yemibhalo eqaphelekayo eyavela ngaso lesi sikhathi singabala umbhalo kaMagema kaMagwaza Fuze owavela ngonyaka we-1922 owawunesihloko esithi “Abantu Abamnyama Lapha Bavela Ngakhona” (owahunyushwa ngesiNgisi ngokuthi “Where the Black People Came From”), kanye nomsebenzi kaPetros Lamula wangonyaka we-1936 owawunesihloko esithi “Isabelo sikaZulu” (kanti wahunyushwa ngolimi lwesiNgisi ngokuthi nje “Zulu Heritage”).

Imibhalo yesimanje yolimi lwesiZulu

Imibhalo yobuciko yamanje yolimi lwesiZulu igxile ekugubheni kanye nasekugcineni ulimi lwesiZulu kanye namasiko akhona, kodwa okuyikhona okubhekwe kakhulu ukugcina umongo nokuceba kwezindaba zesiZulu ezazingabhalwa phansi. Kanti phakathi kwezinye izindaba zesiZulu ezinothile singabala imisebenzi eyabhalwa wu-F.L.A Ntuli ngonyaka we-1939 onesihloko esithi “Izinganekwane Nezindaba Ezindala” (engahunyushwa ngolimi lwesiNgisi ngokuthi: “Oral Narratives and Ancient Traditions”) kanye nomsebenzi kaNyembezi wangonyaka we-1958 okwakuyiqoqo lezinkondlo zobuqhawe bukaZulu elalinesihloko esithi “Izibongo zamakhosi” (“Izinkondlo zobuqhawe lapho inyosi isuke ihasha khona inkosi ethile”).

Imibhalo yobuciko yesimanje ayigxilile nje kuphela kwizingqikithi ezithinta isiZulu kuphela. Imibhalo yobuciko yolimi lwesiZulu esikhathini samanje isifaka phakathi izinto ezifana nemibhalo ewubuciko bomlomo, izinkondlo kanye nedrama. Sekukhona ngisho namaphephandaba amaningi olimi lwesiZulu, kukhona namaphephabhuku, izinhlelo zemisakazo kanye neziteshi zikamabonakude ezisakaza ngolimi lwesiZulu.

Izici zolimi lwesiZulu

Ulimi lwesiZulu lunamagama amaningi oluwethekele ezilimini ezifana nesiBhunu kanye nesiNgisi. Njengolimi lwesiXhosa, ulimi lwesiZulu lwehlukile kwezinye izilimi ngoba lusebenzisa kakhulu ongwaqa kanti izazi eziningi zezilimi zikholelwa ukuthi labo ngwaqa abaningi kangaka bebolekwa ezilimini zabaThwa. Enye into eqaphelekayo ngolimi lwesiZulu ukuthi amagama amaningi kulo agcina ngonkamisa.

  • IsiZulu siwulimi lwebele kubantu ababalelwa ku: 22.7% womphakathi wonkana wakuleli (sikhulunywa ngabantu abayizi-11 587 374)
  • Ukuzaleka kwalolu limi kumi kanje: Niger-Congo > Atlantic-Congo > Volta- Congo > Benue-Congo > Bantoid > Southern > Narrow Bantu > Central > S group > Nguni > isiZulu
  • Amanye amagama omlando olubuye lwaziwe ngalo: Zulu, Zunda
  • Izilimi zezigodi: isiLala, isiQwabe

Bakhona nakwezinye izindawo abantu abakhuluma ulimi lwesiZulu kanti batholakala ezindaweni ezifana noSwazini, eMzambikhi, eMalawi, eBotswana kanye naseLesotho.

 

Imithombo: Census 2011 kanye ne-Ethnologue

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